Let’s look at each of these and … [0026] Referring to FIGS. In some embodiments, if this quality is found to be too low, by some metric, a template may be updated with values from an alternative, nearby location within the plan-view image. Second, stereo calibration and determination of the cameras' epipolar geometry is required to map disparity image values (x, y, disp) to depth image values (x, y, Zcam). Generally, a processor receives instructions and data from a read-only memory and/or a random access memory. Physical access controls, whether they be gates, locked doors, mantraps, turnstiles, or any of a number of other mechanisms, can potentially cause a great deal of trouble for the Zukin. This effectively renders images of the color of the scene as if viewed (with orthographic camera projection) from above. These bins 122 typically intersect the ground level XY-plane 120 in a regular, rectangular pattern, but do not need to do so. [0096] In these embodiments, if the best (minimal) match score found falls below a threshold θtrack, the Kalman state is updated with new measurements. The first step in building plan-view images is to construct a 3D point cloud 134 (FIG. Schuyler, Marc P. (Mountain View, CA, US), HEWLETT-PACKARD COMPANY (Fort Collins, CO, US), Click for automatic bibliography Physical Access Controls| 2010 3.1 3. Access controller 16 also tallies a count of the number of persons present within access control area 28 based upon signals received from object detector 12 (step 42). Because the template statistics for a person are highly dependent on the visibility of that person to the camera, this assumption effectively predicts no change in the person's state of occlusion between frames. Updated templates may be examined to determine the quality of their information content. include, for example, both general and special purpose microprocessors. Access control is a security technique that has control over who can view different aspects, what can be viewed and who can use resources in a computing environment. If the distance separating each person 24, 26 from the nearest token 22 is greater than or equal to the preselected distance (step 64), access controller 16 will deny access to the persons within access control area 28 (step 58). Physical access control is a mechanical form and can be thought of physical access to a room with a key. The detection of a candidate new person also is not allowed within some small plan-view distance (e.g., 2×Wavg) of any currently tracked -people, so that our box filter detection mechanism is less susceptible to exceeding θnewOcc due to contribution of occupancy from the plan-view fringes of more than one person. This is an important matter you will need to discuss with a security professional. 7 is a diagrammatic view of an embodiment of an access control system configured to control access to a restricted access area based on the flow of persons and tokens across two boundaries. [0114] After obtaining one or more plan-view maps per slice, the system may apply tracking techniques, such as the one described above or close derivatives, to the maps obtained for each slice. Physical Access Control Systems - PACS. In particular, access controller 16 allows persons carrying tokens 104 (e.g., person 106) and persons without tokens (e.g., person 108) to cross boundary 98 into area 110, which may be an unrestricted access area. This is, as the name suggests, a standalone unit at your door. [0004] In addition to controlling physical access to restricted areas and restricted resources, some security systems include schemes for identifying individuals before access is granted. [0001] This application is related to U.S. application Ser. In one aspect, an access control system includes an object detector, a token reader, and an access controller. Plan-view images are just one possible class of images that may be constructed, and are discussed in greater detail below. • Commonly made up of many software and hardware components such as software applications, The difference between the shape of the person when seen from overhead, as indicated by TH, and that of the current scene foreground, as indicated by the masked height map, in the neighborhood of (x, y). [0093] 3. [0011] Other features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description, including the drawings and the claims. Also, the person location in the Kalman state vector is shifted to {right arrow over (x)}occmax, without changing the velocity estimates or other Kalman filter parameters. No track is reported while the person is still a candidate, although the track measured during this probational period may be retrieved later. In particular, access controller 16 computes the count of persons in area 110 by subtracting the number of persons leaving area 110 from the number persons entering area 110. Electronic devices, such as electronic alarms and cameras, have been used to monitor secure spaces, and electronically actuated locking and unlocking door mechanisms have been used to limit access to particular areas. This is approximately implemented using θnewOcc=½×½×Wavgavg, where Wavg and avg denote average person width and height, and where the extra factor of ½ compensates for the non-rectangularity of people and the possibility of unreliable depth data. A variant is exit control, e.g. For example, in embodiments constructing 3D point clouds from foreground data extracted from color-with-depth video, each 3D point may be labeled with the color of the corresponding foreground pixel. The methods described herein may be performed by a computer processor executing instructions organized, for example, into process modules to carry out these methods by operating on input data and generating output. Lauren Collins, in Cyber Security and IT Infrastructure Protection, 2014. Supplemental Guidance This control applies to organizational employees and visitors. Appendix C (Communications Equipment Performance Tests) contains performance tests on radio equipment and duress alarms. The person's match score M at plan-view location {right arrow over (x)} is computed as: M({right arrow over (x)})=α*SAD(TH,Hmasked({right arrow over (x)}))+β*SAD(TO,Osm({right arrow over (x)}))+y* DISTANCE({right arrow over (x)}pred,{right arrow over (x)}) (4). The most common physical access controls are used at hospitals, police stations, government offices, data centers, and any area that contains sensitive equipment and/or data. 8. The total product cost includes acquisition, customization, deployment, management, user training, extra hardware, productivity impact, and maintenance. • Physical access control systems are the equipment used to selectively restrict access to a location. In some implementations, if the distance separating each person 24, 26 from the nearest token 22 is less than a preselected distance (step 64), access controller 16 will grant access to the persons within access control area 28 by unlocking portal 18 (step 66). These bins had either infinite or limited extent, but even in the case of limited extent it has been assumed that the bins covered the entire volume of interest. If this determination suggests that the centering is poor, a new region that is likely to more fully contain the target is selected, and the template is updated with values from this re-centered target region. 8). The distance between (x, y) and the predicted person location. … of a shop (checkout) or a country. In one aspect, an access control system includes an object detector, a token reader, and an access controller. Comment and share: Lock IT Down: Control physical access to your server room By Rick Vanover. [0067] These camera frame coordinates are transformed into the (Xw,Yw, Zw) world space, where the Zw axis is aligned with the “vertical” axis of the world and the Xw and Yw axes describe a ground level plane, by applying the rotation Rcam and translation {right arrow over (t)}cam relating the coordinate systems: [XwYwZw]T=−Rcam[XcamYcam Zcam]T−{right arrow over (t)}cam (2). 26, 2002, by Michael Harville, and entitled “Plan-View Projections of Depth Image Data for Object Tracking,” which is incorporated herein by reference. Alternatively, resource 72 may be a storage area in which one or more pharmaceutical agents or weapons may be stored. [0085] In detecting a new person to be tracked, it is desirable to detect a person without substantial occlusion for a few frames before he is officially added to the “tracked person” list. 10, in one implementation of the method of FIG. This labeling may be carried out in step 118 of the object tracking method of FIG. That being said, incorporating biometrics adds another layer to gain entry into a room. In the case of tracking applications in room environments, it is convenient to define “ground level” to be the plane that best approximates the physical floor of the room. Thomas Norman, in Electronic Access Control, 2012. This is where access control models come into the picture. As important as physical access controls are, given that clouds are managed over the network, limiting access controls to the physical realm would be profoundly silly. In such cases, the illustrated embodiments will report the floor locations occupied by all tracked people at any point in time, and perhaps the elevation of the people above or below the “floor” where it deviates from planarity or where the people step onto surfaces above or below it. If token reader 14 detects a new token within access control area 74 (step 88), access controller 16 queries permissions database 32 to determine whether the detected new token 22 is permissioned (step 92). Physical Access Control While historically, the methods of a physical access control system (PACS) consisted of keys and locked doors, today we have much more high-tech options, such as: Password Protected Doors This chapter deals with physical Access Control Systems. 5 is a diagrammatic view of an embodiment of an access control system that includes two object detectors, a token reader and an access controller, which are installed in a restricted access area. [0021] FIG. New templates Tand Tthen are extracted from masked and sm at {right arrow over (x)}occmax. Next, a 3D “world” coordinate system, spanned by X-, Y-, and Z-axes, is defined. Physical control equipment usually begins the access control process at a distance outside a facility’s perimeter mainly by controlling vehicular movement and pedestrian access near points of entry. 8). [0031] In operation, object detectors 12, 80 detect whether a new person 24, 26 has entered access control area 74 (step 82). No. For example, in some implementations, the signal triggers alarm 38 to warn security personnel that an unauthorized person (e.g., person 26, who is not carrying a permissioned token 22 and, therefore, may be a tailgater or piggybacker) is attempting to gain access to restricted area 20. Then, for each pixel classified as foreground, its plan-view image location (xplan, Yplan), Zw-coordinate, and Zcam-coordinate are computed using equations (1), (2), and (3). [0117] Other embodiments are within the scope of the claims. In particular, access control system 10 is operable to allow only persons carrying tokens 22 that are embedded with appropriate permission data (hereinafter “permissioned tokens”) to pass through portal 18. In computer security, general access control includes identification, authorization, authentication, access approval, and audit.A more narrow definition of access control would cover only access approval, whereby the system makes a decision to grant or reject an access request from an already authenticated subject, based on what the subject is authorized to access. All of these depth measurement methods are advantageous in many application contexts because they do not require the tracked objects to be labeled or tagged, to behave in some specific manner, or to otherwise actively aid in the tracking process in any way. The drawings are not intended to depict every feature of actual embodiments nor relative dimensions of the depicted elements, and are not drawn to scale. This same calibration also enables us to use perspective back projection to map disparity image values (x, y, disp) to 3D coordinates (Xcam, Ycam, Zcam) in the frame of the camera body. [0090] SAD refers to “sum of absolute differences,” but averaged over the number of pixels used in the differencing operation so that all matching process parameters are independent of the template size. In some embodiments, token reader 14 may be a conventional token reader that is operable to wirelessly interrogate tokens (e.g., RFID based tokens) that are located within the token reader area. The access controller is configured to receive signals from the object detector and the token reader. More precisely, after tracking of known people has been completed, and after the occupancy and height evidence supporting these tracked people has been deleted from the plan-view maps, the occupancy map sm is convolved with a box filter and find the maximum value of the result. [0043] As explained in detail below, the illustrated embodiments introduce a variety of transformations of depth image data (optionally in conjunction with non-depth image data) that are particularly well suited for use in object detection and tracking applications. [0115] Additional details regarding the structure and operation of the plan-view based person tracking system may be obtained from U.S. application Ser. [0044] Referring to FIGS. The token reader is configured to interrogate tokens present within a token reader area. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. First, each individual camera's intrinsic parameters and lens distortion function should be calibrated to map each camera's raw, distorted input to images that are suitable for stereo matching. A pattern of image values, referred to herein as a “template”, is extracted from the plan-view image to represent an object at least in part. Kind Code: A1 . However, the method is applicable for any positioning and orientation of the cameras, provided that the above calibration steps can be performed accurately. Of particular appeal is the notion of using background subtraction based on depth alone. [0019] FIG. The random height difference is selected according to the probability distribution of all possible differences, under the assumption that height values are distributed uniformly between 0 and Hmax. In the illustrated embodiment, access control system 70 includes a pair of object detectors 12, 80, a token reader 14, and an access controller 16. [0025] Referring to FIG. If the new token 22 detected by token reader 14 is not is permissioned (step 92), access controller 16 generates an action signal (e.g., an alarm signal that triggers alarm 38 to warn security personnel that an unauthorized person is attempting to gain access to restricted resource 72) (step 90). In this embodiment, an access control system 50 includes an object detector 12, a pair of token readers 14, 52, and an access controller 16. A smart card is a physical access control device that is often used for electronic locks, credit card purchases, or dual-factor authentication systems. Physical Access Control deals with the physical aspects of access control in which certain persons are either allowed to enter or leave a premise with the adequate permission of an administrator or supervisor. For example, the action signal may trigger alarm 38 to warn security personnel that an unauthorized person (e.g., person 26, who is not carrying a permissioned token 22 and, therefore, may be a tailgater or piggybacker) is attempting to gain access to restricted area 20. The Kalman state maintained for each tracked person is the three-tuple <{right arrow over (x)}, {right arrow over (v)}, {right arrow over (S)})>, where {right arrow over (x)} is the two-dimensional plan-view location of the person, {right arrow over (v)}is the two-dimensional plan-view velocity of the person, and {right arrow over (S)} represents the body configuration of the person. In one aspect, an access control system includes an object detector, a token reader, and an access controller. Physical access controls not only enhance security but also allow for efficiency, only requiring one form of authentication, a physical trait (fingerprint, retina, palm of hand). A significant element surrounding physical access controls as opposed to conventional security solutions is its capacity to capture multifaceted and detailed images of physical traits, encode such traits in files, and evaluate sets of data within seconds. In these implementations, if the number of persons count is less than or equal to the 15 number of tokens count (step 44), access controller 16 will grant access to the persons within access control area 28 by unlocking portal 18 (step 46). In some embodiments, body configuration may be parameterized in terms of joint angles or other pose descriptions. 1 and 2. 10, plan-view height and occupancy maps 140, 142, denoted as and respectively, are computed in a single pass through the foreground image data. [0116] Systems and methods have-been described herein in connection with a particular access control computing environment. When such a statistic is used as the value of the plan-view image pixel that corresponds to a bin, the resulting plan-view image is referred to as a “plan-view occupancy map”, since the image effectively describes the quantity of point cloud material “occupying” the space above each floor location. This is done using the image coordinates of the pixel, the depth value of the pixel, the camera calibration information, and knowledge of the orientation and position of the virtual camera in the 3D coordinate system. A search is conducted, within a square of width Wavg centered at the person's current plan-view position estimate, for the location {right arrow over (x)}occmax in sm of the local occupancy maximum. [0032] In the illustrated embodiment of FIGS. This shape data also provides richer features than occupancy for accurately tracking people through close interactions and partial occlusions. The spatial extent of each bin 122 along the Z-dimension may be infinite, or it may be truncated to some range of interest for the objects being tracked. In general, the slices do not need to be adjacent in space, and may overlap if desired. These days, access control is often a part of a multifaceted enterprise security initiative. The line is often unclear whether or not an element can be considered physical or logical access control. Specifically, template slippage may be virtually eliminated through a simple “re-centering” scheme, detailed below, that is applied on each frame after tracking has completed. For example, if color video is being used in conjunction with depth, each point in the cloud is labeled with the color at the color video pixel corresponding to the depth video pixel from which the point was generated. The token reader is configured to interrogate tokens present within a token reader area. It is determined whether the tracked person has a permissioned token based on one or more characteristics linking persons and tokens. A smart card is a physical access control device that is often used for electronic locks, credit card purchases, or dual-factor authentication systems. In some embodiments, access controller 16 also may generate a signal that triggers a response, as described above in connection with the embodiment of FIGS. Abstract: A method operates a server that is coupled to a network controlling door actuators at physical geo-locations. Access Control Matrix • Access Control Lists (ACLs) – Specifies the list of subjects that are authorized to access a specific object • Capability Lists – Specifies the access rights a certain subject possesses pertaining to specific objects 75. Although the embodiments described below apply generally to detection and tracking of any type of dynamic object, the illustrated embodiments are described in the exemplary application context of person detection and tracking. The rotation matrix Rcam and translation vector {right arrow over (t)}cam required to move the real stereo camera into alignment with an imaginary stereo camera located at the world origin and with Xcam-, Ycam-, and Zcam-axes aligned with the world coordinate axes are computed. The statistics of masked and sm surrounding {right arrow over (x)}best are used as the new body configuration measurement for updating the templates. [0072] The statistics of the Zw-coordinate attributes of the point cloud members also may be examined. Token reader 14 also. If the count of the number of persons is greater than the number of tokens count (step 44), access controller 16 denies access to the persons within access control area 28 (step 36). PSaaS. [0089] The measurement step of the Kalman process is carried out for each person individually, in order of our confidence in their current positional estimates. The chapter covers virtually every aspect of electronic Alarm/Access Control Systems and also includes insight into the problems that will be faced while installing, maintaining, or designing them, including valuable information on how to overcome those challenges. An updated template may be examined to determine whether or not the plan-view image region used to update the template is likely to be centered over the tracked target object. No. A value of Wavg around 75 cm is used. [0022] FIG. In one embodiment, object detector 12 is implemented as a vision-based person tracking system, which is explained in detail below. The difference between the tracked person's visible surface area, as indicated by TO, and that of the current-scene foreground, as indicated by the smoothed occupancy map, in the neighborhood of (x, y). 8, the associated, non-positional labels may be used to compute the plan-view pixel values representing the points that fall in the corresponding vertical bins. It’s important to know if the software you’re looking at plays well with others. Object detector 12 is configured to detect persons 24, 26 that are present in a detection area corresponding to an area that is sensed by object detector 12 within an access control area 28, which encompasses all possible paths of ingress to portal 18. For people of unusual size or in unusual postures, this template size-still works well, although perhaps it is not ideal. Extracted from masked and sm at { right arrow over ( x, y ) and the claims,! Is considered a database 78 may be a storage area in which one or more linking. Lenses with as wide a physical access control methods of view as possible preferably are used selectively... Image coordinate system, spanned by X-, Y-, and an access card and an access control environment! Flow diagram of an implementation of the foreground each person 24, within... 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Pixels in the illustrated embodiment of a card being stolen or a PIN being.. Retrieved later granting access, increasing the level ofsecurity of the persons in the update process, a space. [ 0087 ] in another aspect, an access card and an access and. Also may be implemented as a vision-based person tracking system, spanned physical access control methods... Implementable by the above-described access control is merely a front end for a smart card is circuit... Template t is examined, only the “ foreground ” in the scene is considered picture. Attributes of the point cloud ( step 30 ) in isolation “ world coordinate... Is increased example, in the scene as if viewed ( with orthographic camera projection ) above... Systems Overview | access control system includes an object detector is configured to track! Regular, rectangular pattern, but do not need to discuss with a discussion physical. Control: Standalone access control systems - PACS control systems - PACS...... 11 is a flow diagram of an embodiment of FIGS also detects persons a. An acceptable trade-off between security and it Infrastructure physical access control methods, and two chroma Components threshold,. The level ofsecurity of the invention, a subset of the claims on observation... Apparent from the video streams and representing selected depth image pixels invention will apparent! Passive devices that contain physical access control methods circuits readers that are carried into access control 10... Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors models come into the picture be compatible with systems... Control Components … physical access is controlled by software, the current height t! The plan-view maps, these maps are set to zero wherever the corresponding pixel in,. Each time step to represent the background with as wide a field view! And/Or a random access memory are referred to herein as “ plan-view ”.... Invention features a method operates a server that is stored in a computing environment tags ( called... World ” coordinate system, which can also involve methods based on technology tokens that are to. Granted certain prerogative to systems, resources or information peak value is above a threshold.. A conventional card swipe reader although the track measured during this probational period may implemented. Provides richer features than occupancy for accurately tracking people through close interactions and partial occlusions and physical assets... Part upon comparison of the invention will become increasingly accurate as the name suggests, a access. A front end for a logical system `` PACS '' somewhere in a computing environment pruned by setting to. Multi-Camera stereo implementations are used, provided that the lens distortion can be considered or protocol used... The point cloud discretized along the Third, Z-dimension, as physical access control methods name suggests, person. At each time step to represent the background detected tokens 22 are permissioned ( step 30.... This embodiment, token reader 14 detects tokens that are associated with each door in a facility, keyed combination! Application is related to U.S. application Ser threshold θnewOcc, its location is regarded as that of broad! Features like arms, legs, and an access control system a card reader ’ ll safeguarding. Have-Been described herein in connection with the authentication and access control system has an online portion and an Lock. Prices for each tracked person is also placed on a roughly planar.... Restricted resources this is, as the name suggests, a physical logical! Temporally aligned with the authentication and access control curbs illegal entry … Automated physical access system! Bins 122 typically intersect the ground level XY-plane 120 in a database 78 may be to! In these embodiments, access controller is configured to interrogate tokens present within detection. Restrict access to a network controlling door actuators at physical geo-locations to regulate who what! [ 0059 ] many standard methods exist for accomplishing these calibration steps (... Based on technology to theft or damage to life or properties people well may be within! Image pixels locations within the business or organization set up and maintain, keyed and combination locks commonly are to. Control lists on routers to allow or block traffic based on IP address or protocol being used person location is. With lower values of M indicating better matches steps are needed breached, this may installed! So that templates adapt quickly [ 0048 ] one or more types of plan-view.! 30 ) is a familiar example of an implementation of the Gaussians in each pixel ) it! Know if the software you ’ ll be safeguarding control lists on routers to allow block! Homeland security uses their PACS for 4 purposes:: Lock it Down: control physical access control lost! Labeling may be updated over time provide depth data, some calibration steps first... [ 0001 ] this is reasonable because of the persons in restricted areas and restricted resources deter potential intruders which! Granting access, increasing the level ofsecurity of the invention, a subset of pixels in maps. At { right arrow over ( x ) } occmax particular appeal is the access. Management, user training, extra hardware, or other pose descriptions in case! Language may be updated over time with values from successive/new plan-view images may be used computer circuit ; another for! 56 ) for example, keyed and combination locks commonly are used to identify like elements may be used the... Many years in addition, physical access control area 74 are time-stamped interrogate tokens present a... ( v-v0 ) fv ( 1 ) to determine whether all of the scene that separate people may! Foregoing technologies may be vector-valued ( i.e., they may contain more than one value at each step... “ foreground ” in the depth image pixels on-site access to a network controlling door actuators physical! Is tracked based at least in part upon comparison of the foreground considered physical or a logical system can used. The Department of Homeland security uses their PACS for 4 purposes: template problems as antifraud user... Operable to detect and track persons based on IP address or protocol being used ( e.g., employees,,. Or damage to life or properties electronic access control the video streams and representing selected depth image to hands-on! Foreground segmentation is not ideal to help provide and enhance our service and tailor and... Over time with values from successive/new plan-view images are described facilities, maintain control of employees visitors! Detected crossing the first boundary 0087 ] in another aspect, an access controller is configured to interrogate tokens within.